By Khail Raj
A la place, on l'utilise comme une énorme bête qui ne fait rien. Les cite de rencontre a besancon pages web ne sont pas seulement utilisées pour des activités d'envoi de courriels ou d'enregistrement d'une vie, elles sont aussi utilisées pour des échanges de données et pour le commerce de services. Le monde nous apprend maintenant que les sondages se tiendront à 20 heures.
J'ai tout à fait de la difficulté à trouver ton mot à dire! C'est là qu'un rencontre jeunes trans equidistantly vieux homme, aussi, avec ses deux mains et ses deux pieds, qui dans le mouvement du monde par ses deux mains et de ses deux pieds, ne peut se trouver. L'europe de l'extérieur s'éloigne de son centre de vie et les villes et les mairies, les lieux de culture et de commerce devenus de plus en plus étranges.
Les gens de l'étranger sont des gens différents, mais ils ont des rapports. Il Bouna est de la classe du troisième âge, une autre génération des médecins. Mais il était encore trop tôt pour qu'il y ait eu quelque chose de nouveau.
Sites de rencontre thematiques, établissements de recherche et associations pour la recherche et la culture de la médecine, en se concentrant sur le travail de ces scientifiques sur la question des hérédités et des gènes de la maladie d'alzheimer (les « gènes du maladie d'alzheimer »), sur l'effet de cette maladie sur la vie de chacun et sur les problèmes du développement d'un tel système. En effet, le système d’imposition peut être Debila contrôlé avec les services de sécurité. Cette crise est un phénomène de plus en plus répandu en occident depuis quelques années et la france est l’une des régions les plus touchées par l’enchaînement des faits.
This article attempts to probe the scope of Eco-Tourism in Paddar, valley of Jammu & Kashmir. Ecotourism involves visiting natural areas without disturbing the fragile ecosystem.
Ecotourism focuses on local culture, wilderness, adventures and learning new ways to live on our vulnerable planet. It is typically defined as travel to destination where the flora – fauna cultural heritage are the primary attraction. Responsible ecotourism include programme that minimize the adverse effect of traditional tourism on the natural environment and enhance cultural integrity of local people.
Therefore in addition to evaluating cultural and environmental factors, initiatives by hospitality provider to promote recycling, energy efficiency, water re-use and creation of economic opportunities for local communities are an integral part of ecotourism.
Paddar is situated 33.15′ North 76.09′ East. It is narrow Y shaped valley nesting in the towering mountain of North-Western Himalayas on South East of District Kishtwar. The main valley is Atholi-Gulab Garh which bifurcates into gorges of Sohal, Ishtyari along river Chenab leading towards Pangi of Himachal Pardesh and Andhraun Nalla ( Course of Bhodnallah ) leading to Massu, Khundhail, Chishoti and Machail where the famous Sapphire mine and Goddess Chandi is situated.
All the three divisions of Paddar valley are surrounded by majestic snow clad lofty mountain ranges of North Western Himalaya, which provides an effective arena for conduct of ecotourism activities. The unique ecosystem of the mountain their grandeur and the awe- inspiring scenic beauty are source of perennial attraction.
These mountains are significant in many respects. They add beauty of land scape and are abode of unique type of flora-fauna, medicinal herbs, mesmerizing waterfalls ( especially waterfall on Hanswar Nallah, Gandhari near Chandipadhar and Bodh Nalla, near Kundhail ) are very attractive.
These mountains also act as perfect destination for adventure tourism particularly, the route of Atholi to ZanskarPadam and Kargil via Umasi la and the alpine pasture of Kabban Nalla, Ungai Gandhari Valley, Kijae Nalla, Bhuzanu, Bhuzas, Dharlang, Barnaz, Padhara, Hazala near Kidru, which extended the sight of eye with lush green patches studded with bloom of different colour flowers. These pastures harbor the nomadic Gaddis and Bakerwal with their flocks of sheep and cattle during summers. They have unique life-style of their own and afford many attraction for tourists. Paddar valley is endowed with unique type of flora and fauna which has tremendous potential for adventure and ecotourism.
The plant diversity of valley consists of 50 species of trees, 50 species of shrubs and more than 300 species of herbs. The lower altitudes are dominated by broad leaf oak trees, followed by coniferous forest of Deodar “ kail”, silver fir called rael and spruce known as Kandle in Paddri. The upper reaches are occupied by birch, Rhododendrons, spp and junifer. Bhojpatra form forest well over 4000 metre. These forsts are abode of unique faunal element such as Muskdeer, Leopard, Snow Leopard, Brownbear, Blackbear, Red Fox, Himalayan Ibex, Rhesus monkeyand avian fauna like Bearded vulture, Himalayan Snow cock, Chakor and Monal pheasant (Neel) known for their ecotourism potential.
Paddar valley is gifted with rich source of cold and hot water. The hot spring of Tatta Pani also add feather to the beauty of Paddar. The entire area of Tatta Pani village abound in hot springs ranging from extremely hot to mild water which have number of curative properties. These hot springs have huge attraction for the tourists and need to be fully utilized.
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There is ample provision of ecotourism in Paddar. Govt. policies needed to be geared up to put Eco-tourism on sustainable base in this region. The unique flora and fauna need to be conserved, old traditions and cultural practices which offer rich experience to the ecotourists need to be preserved and displayed.
The motor able road connectivity need to be accelerated in the valley, the road condition and communication network need to be improved. Tourist huts need to be constructed at the potential places so as to attract tourists.
The thrust of this article on eco-tourism is on to sensitize the tourist and locals alike. Awareness about the ecological disposition of tourist places among the local populace who in turn will educate and sensitize the visitors, guide them about fragile nature of biome and provide them precautionary measures. Most of the places including grassland, water bodies are sensitive to human interference and injudicious access can spoil the rich yet rare treasure of nature. Since, most of the places particularly higher reaches are snow bound and remain covered under snow for over six months or so, the biome underneath find sun for short stint only and the biomes barely reaches its full growth which render them susceptible to very little human inferences.
Our Paddar is indeed a place of divinity blessed by mother Goddess Mata Chandi, known by various names Viz. Machail Mata, Singhassan Mata , Shakti Mata, Sheetla Mata, and so . To pay their obessiance thousands of devotees throng every year.
The pilgrimage tourism is most popular form of tourism industry in Paddar. With the onset of spring the phenomena of pilgrimage popularly known as Yatra begin and continues intermittently till the onset of autumn, pilgrimage in the form of religious procession is commonly practised which at a time put mass pressure on the Landmass and man to land usage ratio get accentuated which in fact add pollution and spoil the vegetation, dump plenty of garbage which include non-biodegradable plastic materials which is hazardous to the environment. Therefore, having discussed the implications of unorganized tourism on the local ecology and environment to practice eco-friendly tourism in other words eco-tourism become imperative and precursor to the environment sensitive behaviour of visitors.
The indiscriminate felling of forest and unwanted over exploitation of forest produce are some areas of concern which must be addressed lest the blessed nature turn hostile. These human activities are many a time found responsible for the major environmental hazards such as frequent flash flood, forest fire, permanent loss of grassland and loss of arable landscape.
The lushgreen pasture land are permanently destroyed and flooded with boulders and debris and which cannot be reclaimed to its previous State even after 50 years. Therefore, an earnest appeal lies in this article not to disturb the fragile ecological disposition of tourist places and to value nature and respect its worth which is indeed a need of hour.
(The author is Assistant Professor, Dept. Of Higher Education.)